Common pipe fittings - Tee
A tee is the most common pipe fitting. It is available with all female thread sockets, all solvent weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet with female threads. It is used to either combine or split a fluid flow. It is a type of pipe fitting which is T-shaped having two outlets, at 90° to the connection to the main line. It is a short piece of pipe with a lateral outlet. A tee is used for connecting pipes of different diameters or for changing the direction of pipe runs. They are made of various materials and available in various sizes and finishes. They are extensively used in pipeline networks to transport two-phase fluid mixtures. They are categorized as:
When the size of the branch is same as header pipes, equal tee is used and when the branch size is less than that of header size, reduced tee will be used. Most common are tees with the same inlet and outlet sizes. Some of the industrial tees are Straight Tee, Reducing Tee, Double Branch Tee, Double Branch Reducing Tee, Conical Tee, Double Branch Conical Tee, Bullhead Tee, Conical Reducing Tee, Double Branch Conical Reducing Tee, Tangential Tee, and Double Branch Tangential Tee.
The above tees are categorized on the basis of their shapes and structure. They can also be classified on the basis of the application they are required to perform.
The three outlet sizes should be named in order (e.g. left, middle, right; measuring 15-22-15). The three sizes of a tee are end x end x center, so a tee that is 1" on both ends and 3/4" in the center it would be 1" x 1" x 3/4".
Valves and control over them
Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the stem. If the handle is turned ninety degrees between operating positions, the valve is called a quarter-turn valve. Butterfly, ball valves, and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves. If the handle is circular with the stem as the axis of rotation in the center of the circle, then the handle is called a handwheel. Valves can also be controlled by actuators attached to the stem. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid, pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure, or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water. Actuators can be used for the purposes of automatic control such as in washing machine cycles, remote control such as the use of a centralised control room, or because manual control is too difficult such as when the valve is very large. Pneumatic actuators and hydraulic actuators need pressurised air or liquid lines to supply the actuator: an inlet line and an outlet line. Pilot valves are valves which are used to control other valves. Pilot valves in the actuator lines control the supply of air or liquid going to the actuators.
The fill valve in a toilet water tank is a liquid level-actuated valve. When a high water level is reached, a mechanism shuts the valve which fills the tank.
In some valve designs, the pressure of the flow fluid itself or pressure difference of the flow fluid between the ports automatically controls flow through the valve.
Do you always call a plumber?
Hydraulics are often enough and require emergency repairs carried out by good professionals. Some failures are very serious, others less problematic, but each time should be conducted very fairly and professionally. These smaller faults often we will be able to fix yourself, but if you've become something more serious, you should call a good service hydraulics. Not every failure will end up pretty large costs or cause difficulties, but if not repaired properly, things can get complicated. So it is better to rely here on the knowledge of experienced plumbers, than to rely on luck, because they often can we make this more difficult.